Solutions

Be able to clearly distinguish a solution from other types of mixtures such as colloids.

Be able to name a few solid, liquid, and gaseous solutions.

Understand how to work with various concentration expressions including mole fraction, molality, molarity and normality.

Understand the basis of solubility in chemical thermodynamics. Be capable of predicting the solubility in water of an organic compound from its structural formula.

Understand why some electrolytes are less soluble than others. Remember the solubility rules for electrolytes.

Have a clear sense of the structure at the particle level of an aqueous solution of electrolytes.

Gain facility in employing the solubility product to solve problems such as the final concentration of a solution of weak electrolyte.

Be able to describe the common ion effect and become familiar with typical common ion effect problems.

Understand heterogeneous solution equilibria when it is coupled with acid-base equilibria.

Be prepared to solve problems involving colligative properties including boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, vapor pressure lowering, and osmotic pressure.

Understand the definition of a colloidal suspension. Be able to conceptualize the structure at the particle level of micellar suspensions involving soaps and detergents.

Familiarize yourself with the chemical separation technique known as solvent extraction.

Acids & Bases

Clearly distinguish the systems for defining acids and bases including Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis.

Understand the meaning of conjugate acids and bases in the Brønsted-Lowry system.

Be able to place the Brønsted-Lowry system in the aqueous context in which the equilibrium of a conjugate acid and base is coupled with the autoprotolysis of water.

Place acidity and basicity in the context of organic reaction chemistry. Become familiar with the reactions in which it is an important factor.

Become fluent in working with pH to describe the position of acid-base equilibrium in an aqueous solution.

Be prepared to predict the effect on acidity or basicity of an electron withdrawing or electron donating substituent placed near to an acidic or basic organic functional group.

Understand how to employ the the acid constant ka to determine the strength of an acid or its conjugate base, and become fluent in the basic techniques for solving acid-base equilibrium problems.

Develop a concrete, intuitive understanding of how a buffered solution works to modulate pH.

Know how to work with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation backwards and forwards.

Be able to explain the behavior of an indicator.

Be able to interpret the titration curve of a weak acid with a strong base and the titration curve of a weak base with a strong acid. Be able to pick out the half-equivalence point and the equivalence point.

Extend your understanding to other titration curves, such as the titration of a polyprotic acid or an amino acid.

Organic Acids & Bases

Be able to name the organic acids and compare their relative acidities.

Understand how basicity varies for amines depending on whether the amine is primary, secondary or tertiary.

Be able to correctly predict substituent effects on the acidity of carboxylic acids.

Given the pKa of a carboxylic acid or ammonium cation, be able to predict the most common state of ionization within a sample at varying values of pH.

Have a clear sense of the acidity and basicity of alcohols and phenols.

Bird's Eye View

Knowledge Mapping

Be prepared to describe the chemical thermodynamics of the solution process in terms of internal energy change and heat flow. Be able to explain why 'like dissolves like' in these terms.

Be able to explain boiling point elevation and freezing point depression in terms of relative changes in the free energy of a liquid solvent having dissolved solutes.

Account for the relative acidity within various groups of similar acids such as oxygen acids, the hydrogen halides, and carboxylic acids.

Be able to describe application of the Henderson-Hasselbach equation in biochemistry within general contexts such as amino acid titration or maintenance of physiological pH as well as within more advanced contexts such as the Bohr effect.

Psychology & Sociology

Critical Analysis and Reasoning

Remember the five main types of Verbal Reasoning questions.